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IQ Test and Score
IQ Facts
Intelligence test scores classification
Different types of intelligence testing
IQ test for children
Intelligence (IQ) and schooling
Intelligence testing - Mensa IQ test
Membership in Mensa
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Weschler's IQ Test Score Interpretation
Gap between WPPSI-IV and SB V Test Scores
Discrepancies in WPPSI-IV Scores
Stanford-Binet 5 Score Interpretation
Interpretation of the Standard-Binet V and the WIAT III Scores
Definition of a few Terms in Educational Testing
Difference between the WISC and Woodcock Johnson Test
The Woodcock Johnson III (WJ III) Score
Woodcock Johnson Brief Achievement Testing, Speed and Scores
The RAIS and the Woodcock Johnson Tests
Discrepancy of Scores In RAIS Intelligence And WJ Achievement Tests
Increase children IQ level
Revealing IQ scores
Percentile score on IQ tests
Interpretation of IQ Scores
Intelligence test score interpretation
Comparison of IQ test scores
Meaning of IQ Scores
Different Scores on Different Intelligence Tests
Discrepancy between Intelligence and Achievement Scores
Discrepancy between different IQ Scores - RAIS vs WISC
Intelligence Test Score and Depression
IQ Scores In Relation To Future Achievement
IQ test results
Scales to Measure Intelligence
Normal IQ Range for Intelligence
IQ and standardized tests
Appropriate age for IQ test
Preparing A Child For An IQ Test
IQ Testing for Highly Able Toddlers
IQ Test for 5 Year Old
IQ test for preschoolers
Intelligence Test at K-2 level
IQ test for early entrance to kindergarten
IQ testing for young children
Testing very young children
Intelligence Testing
IQ testing for toddlers I
IQ testing for toddlers II
Testing for the young gifted
Taking an Intelligence test
IQ Tests for the highly gifted
Online IQ test
Online IQ test
Difference in IQ based on Age
Difference in IQ level
Difference in IQ scores
Discrepancy in IQ scores
Score Discrepancy Between Verbal IQ and Performance IQ
Low IQ scores vs High average achievement scores
Gifted at four, average at six on standardised test?
Developmental maturity as an influencing factor on IQ scores
IQ Test: Missing out on Educational Needs
IQ Tests: What other options are there?
The Slosson Intelligence Test (SIT-Revised)
Interpretation of the Slosson Intelligence Test
The Slosson Intelligence Test (SIT)
Slosson Test and Giftedness
Slosson Gifted and Talented Test
IQ Equivalent Of Percentile Score for Slosson Intelligence Test
Interpreting the RIAS scores
Interpretation of the RIAS Scores
Interpretation of RIAS Test Score
RIAS Score Interpretation
Understanding RIAS and DAS Test Scores
The Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT)
Large Discrepancies On The WASI II Scores
WASI: Large Discrepancy Between Verbal And Performance Scores
Activities To Improve Scores in CTOPP for RNNCS Tests
Improving Spatial Reasoning Skills
Multiple Intelligences Evaluation
Misleading Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test scores
Practice Test for The Naglieri Non-Verbal Ability Test (NNAT)
Asperger's and Testing on the WASI
Low IQ and Dyslexia
Intelligence testing for children with Asperger's syndrome
IQ test for mildly autistic children
Test of Cognitive Skills - Poor Working Memory
Children's Category Test (CCT) - High Scores but Poor Social Skills
High IQ: Dealing with perfectionism
Eysenck's IQ test
Duke TIP Admission Criteria
The Raven's Test
Raven and Naglieri Test - Percentile Ranking and IQ
Verbal and Nonverbal Gap on the OLSAT
Comparing the FCAT and the SAT


IQ Accuracy and Reliability Issues
Limits of IQ tests
Accuracy of IQ Testing
Interval between Administrations of IQ Tests
Validity of IQ Test Scores
Decline or Increase in IQ scores
Declining IQ scores
Validity of IQ Test Scores
Reliability of IQ scores over time
Reliability of IQ test score
Retesting on an Intelligence Test
Unsatisfied with Handling of IQ Test
IQ Test readiness issue
Reliability of school readiness test score
Controversy over the use of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Mismatched WPPSI-III scores with ability
WPPSI Score Indication
Range of Scores on the WPPSI-III
Lower Processing Speed Score on the WPPSI-III
Test-Retest Discrepancy in Vocabulary Scores on WPPSI-III
Making Sense of WPPSI-IV and SBIS-5 Intelligence Scores
Score of Reading Comprehension on WIAT III
Interpreting the WAIS IV Score Discrepancy
Score Interpretation of WAIS IV and MMPI II
Discrepancies on WAIS IV and Anxiety
Superior PRI Scores; Average VCI Scores on WAIS IV Test
Wechsler Tests Percentile Rank (WAIS)
Ravens Progressive Matrices Test: Accuracy of IQ tests
Giftedness and reliability of IQ test scores
Mismatch between academic performance and IQ scores
Discrepancies in test scores
Confusion Over Test Results & Interpretation
Conversion of Percentile to IQ score
Vast difference in intelligence test scores
Correlation between tests
Error in IQ test scores
Confusion IQ score
Different IQ score
Impact of Dyslexia and Anxiety Disorder on IQ score
High IQ test score and possible learning disabilities
The Possibility a Learning Disorder Based on IQ Test Scores
IQ and learning disability
IQ Testing for Child with Dyspraxia
True IQ
Can true IQ be measured
From Gifted to Below Average?


IQ and Creativity
CogAT Test
KBIT-2 Test
The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (K-BIT 2)
K-BIT Test Score
Interpretation of K-BIT 2 Test Score
Interpretation of the K-BIT-2 Scores
Interpreting KBIT-2 Scores
Interpretation of K-BIT 2 Scores
Interpretation of K-BIT 2 Scores
Interpretation of KBIT-2 Percentile Score
Interpretation of the KBIT-2 and KTEA-II scores
Interpretation of KBIT2 and SIGS Test Score
Low Verbal Scores on K-BIT 2
Conversion on Scaled Scores to Standard Scores on K-BIT 2
Discrepancy Between Verbal And Non-Verbal Scores On The K-BIT 2
Nonverbal Score Significantly Higher than Verbal on K-BIT II
Large Gap Between Verbal and Non-Verbal Scores on KBIT-2
Possible Non Verbal Learning Disorder (NVLD)
Intelligent or Gifted based on KBIT-2 scores
K-BIT 2 and K-TEA II Score Range
Composite Score and Percentile Rank on K-BIT-2 and KTEA
Lower than Expected Score on KBIT-2
Large Variance in KBIT2 Scores
Difference in Range between KBIT-2 and WIAT II Tests
Correlation Between K-BIT and WISC Tests
K-BIT 2 and CogAT
Large Discrepancy between Scores of Two Tests (KBIT-2 and DAS-II)
Superior Ability Concerns
Improving KBIT 2 test scores
Interpreting Percentile on K-BIT 2
Interpretation of Kaufman Brief Intelligence (2nd Edition) Scores


WISC-IV Test / WISC-V Test
Technical terms in the WISC-IV
WISC IV Interpretation
Interpretation of WISC Scores
Interpretation of WISC-IV Scores
Interpretation of WISC-IV Scores
Interpretation of WISC-IV Scores
Interpretation of WISC-IV Scores
Interpreting of WISC-IV Scores
Interpreting the WISC IV Score
Interpretation of WISC-IV Score
Interpretation of the WISC-IV Scores
Interpretation of the WISC-IV Scores
Interpretation of the WISC-IV Scores
Interpretation of the Wechsler (WISC-IV) Scores
Description of WISC-IV Scores
WISC-IV Test Results Interpretation
Interpreting WISC-IV Test Scores
WISC-IV Score Interpretation
WISC-IV Score Interpretation
Discrepancy in WISC IV Scores
Discrepancy Between Verbal and Non Verbal Scores on WISC-IV
Discrepancies in Scores on the WISC IV
Discrepancy between Subset Scores on the WISC-IV
Discrepancies in the WISC-IV scores
Score Discrepancy on the WISC-IV
Disparity between the WISC IV Indices
Disparity Between Scores on WISC IV
Discrepancy Between WMI and PSI scores
Confusion over WISC-IV scores
Multiple Diagnoses and Further IQ Assessments
WISC-IV Test: Appropriate Gifted Programme to Match Abilities
The WISC-IV Test of Intelligence
Reason for Using the WISC
Perceptual reasoning component of the WISC IV
Difference between working memory and perceptual reasoning on the WISC IV
Conversion of Scaled Scores to Composite Scores on WISC-IV
WISC IV - Improving Working Memory and Processing Speed
WISC IV - High Processing Speed and Working Memory
Perceptional Reasoning Score on WISC-IV
WISC IV: Improving Perceptual Reasoning Skills
Language Therapy to Improve WISC Scores
Retesting issues for WISC-IV
Retesting for WISC-IV
Retesting on WISC-IV or SB-V
Testing WISC-III and WISC-IV Within a Year
IQ testing: WISC IV
IQ on the WISC-IV
Average IQ and above average achievement score
Testing for giftedness using the WISC-IV
Low scores in WISC IV processing speed
Activities to strengthen perceptual reasoning (WISC-IV)
Disparity between the Verbal Comprehension Index with Others (WISC-IV)
Gap between Verbal and Nonverbal IQ Scores
WISC-IV: Good Verbal Scores, Average on Others
WISC IV - Verbal and Nonverbal Discrepancies
Large Discrepancy between the Verbal Comprehension and the Perceptual Reasoning Index on the WISC IV
Low Matrix Reasoning Score in WISC-IV
WISC IV - Low Working Memory Score
Impact of Dyslexia on the WISC-IV Working Memory Scores
The WISC-IV and Dyslexia
Contrast between the WISC-IV and WIAT scores
Interpretation of WISC IV and WIAT Scores
Discrepancies Between Different Ability Tests - WISC and CogAT tests
Score Difference Between CAT4 And WISC-IV
Varied Scores on the WISC IV and WIAT II
WISC-IV Versus WIAT-II Test Scores
Age versus Grade on Intelligence Tests
Processing Speed and General Ability Index (GAI)
Decline in The General Ability Index (GAI) Score
GAI score and Giftedness
Determining FSIQ from GAI score
Percentile Difference on the WISC-IV
ADHD and WISC-IV Scores
Intelligence Tests As Indicator of ADHD
ADHD and WISC-V Scores
Diagnosing Dyslexia using WISC
WISC IV Scores for ADHD/Dyslexia
Working Memory and ADHD
Interpretation of the WISC-V Scores
WISC-V Score Classification
The WISC-V Scores
WISC-V: Very High IQ Scores, Average Working Memory
WISC V Standard Deviation and Percentile
Descriptive Classification of the WISC V


Terra Nova Test
Terra Nova test
Interpreting TerraNova scores
Terra Nova score
Interpreting Terra Nova test score
Highest Grade in the Terra Nova Report
Terra Nova Achievement test
The Total Score in Terra Nova
High Scores on the Terra Nova
Verbal Reasoning in the Terra Nova
Difference Between Reading and Language Scores in Terra Nova 3
Further IQ Testing
InView and WASI
Terra Nova CSI Score
Drop in Cognitive Index Score (CSI) on the Terra Nova
Difference between Terra Nova and IQ tests
Discrepancy in Achievement and IQ scores on the Terra Nova
The Terra Nova and the WISC-IV
The difference between the Terra Nova and other National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests
TerraNova test to determine giftedness
TerraNova and gifted program
Testing for the Gifted Programme
Terra Nova Test: Discrepancy in Math group and score
The possibility of lower Terra Nova scores based on birth quarter
Discrepancy Between Achievement and Intelligence Test Scores
Discrepancy in Terra Nova Scores and Presumed Ability
Possible effect of emotional state on Terra Nova scores
Reliability and Validity of the InView Test
The InView portion of the Terra Nova
InView on the TerraNova
The Terra Nova Inview and IQ tests
Discrepancy in Scores of the Terra Nova and InView
Interpretation of InView Results

Increase IQ Level

Q: What is that one important thing I must do to increase my son's IQ level?

A: Unfortunately, there is no single best way to increase one's IQ. It requires a combination of methods and a great deal of effort. See Dr. Sandhu's answer on Increase children IQ Level.


IQ and Creativity testing for children

Q: I am mother of 3 years old daughter. How to test child's intelligence, IQ & creativity at this age?

A: A note on intelligence and IQ. Howard Gardner (1983, a well known name in the study of intelligence today) looks at intelligence from a multidimensional point of view. Gardner suggested multiple intelligences and described seven aspects to be taken in view such as linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinaesthetic, interpersonal and intra-personal skills. Problem solving is viewed as a key element in each domain. See Dr. Sandhu's answer on IQ and Creativity testing.


Artistic Creativity

Q: My daughter is 3 years and 9 months old. Since about a year ago she has displayed a great deal of artistic talent (at 2 yrs 9 months old she was drawing people with arms and legs and naming them). She draws pictures and labels them specifically, often asking how to spell the word so she can write it on the paper. Today she drew a "couch and chair" which was a striking resemblance of a chair at home, complete with the light that sits behind it.

What type of assessment would you recommend for a child demonstrating
artistic ability at her age?

A: Every child is considered to have creative potential and capable of creative expression, however not to an equal extent. In fact research has indicated that creativity can be enhanced using specific creative programs, which include art-based ones. Your daughter appears to be creative, in this case, artistically creative. See Dr. Sandhu's answer on Artistic Creativity.


IQ Test For Children

Q: Is it possible to be able to correctly test a child of 3 years old IQ?

A: To accurately determine the IQ of individuals of any age group is still questionable. However, it can be a rough indication and there are signs that you can look out for. You may want to view the checklist that I prepared for possible signs of giftedness, which would relate to higher IQ. See Dr. Sandhu's answer on IQ Test for Children.


Terra Nova Test

Q: My daughter turned 5 this past November and is enrolled in a full-day kindergarten program. She is doing well; e.g., she is able to read Hop on Pop almost entirely on her own and understands simple addition. My town imposes a cut-off date for entry into the 1st grade that she does not meet (must be 6 by Oct.1) but I do not want to hold her back. I've been looking into some private schools and some use standardized tests such as terra nova test to determine if she can enter their school. My questions are:

  1. Is such testing appropriate at this age?
  2. What are your feelings about pushing her ahead?

A: Your daughter is indeed doing very well for her age. I understand that certain policies are quite stringent where cut-off age is concerned to be fair to all. See Dr. Sandhu's answer on Terra Nova Test.


Terra Nova Achievement Test

Q: My son who is seven years old completed Terra Nova testing in school. His scores were in the middle of the 75th percentile across the board. Is this test conclusive on his further educational development? On the other side if a child scored 99% does this merit being gifted or very focused ?

A: Briefly (for readers who are not yet familiar), the Terra Nova is a standardized achievement test designed to provide achievement scores that are valid for most types of educational decision-making. Areas that are assessed are Reading/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies... See Dr. Sandhu's answer on Terra Nova Achievement Test.


Reliability of IQ Scores

Q: I'm a 28 year old PhD student in ecology in the USA. I took an IQ test (Wechsler variety for kids) at age 6 and scored a 131. At the time I stuttered badly so the tester suggested I return after speech therapy as my ability to answer questions was compromised at the time. At age 12 I took another Wechsler and scored 144.... Anyway, I was wondering if my earlier scores at age 12 are the most reliable?

A: The intelligence tests available are supposed to be a guide to measure one's general level of intelligence. Different tests measure different skills. Usually standardized tests are said to be the single best predictor of one's level of intellectual capacity. Based on the Flynn's effect, our intelligence should be on the ... See Dr. Sandhu's answer on Reliability of IQ Scores over Time.


High IQ Test Score and Possible Learning Disabilities

Q: My daughter is 4 years 3 months. Her nursery teacher suspected she is gifted and recommend an IQ test. Her IQ test shows a score of 120, her scores was pull down as she scores only 20 percentile for her 'visual image' testing. Thus, the tester suspected she might have some learning disabilities.

A: Her scores show that she indeed has above average IQ. An IQ test for any age group should be used a guide to determine strengths and weaknesses so as to improve and develop an individual's potential to the maximum. It should not be regarded as a test to label whether or not an individual is gifted. Accuracy of test scores depend on many factors, most importantly the credibility of the test itself... See Dr. Sandhu's answer on Possible Learning Disabilities and High IQ Test Score.


Accuracy of IQ Testing

Q: My daughter was tested for her inborn intelligence and it turns out that it is above average by 51 points. Teacher claimed that she could be gifted due to her observation in class through a series of games and activities for brain training. Hence when an IQ test was administered on her, she has IQ of 100 points, which is average. Teacher claimed she was disappointed as it could be a misjudge. She used TONI 2 test. Will an IQ test for 4 years and 3 months old child be accurate at this point?

A: The TONI 2 (Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 2nd edition) is a language-free measure of abstract problem-solving ability. This test is free of linguistic, motoric, and cultural factors and can be used for a range of age group; 5 through 85 years of age. Hence, in this case, your daughter is younger than the usual minimum age. For someone with above average inborn intelligence scores, I can understand your concern when her scores were average for the IQ test ... See Dr. Sandhu's answer on Accuracy of IQ Testing.



Q: My son recently took the Wesley test to enter the gifted program in his school. He scored an average of 139 with a Math score of 149. According to the tester he was off the chart literally. Where can I find information about the testing and how to deal with a gifted child? We live in Pennsylvania.

A: The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth edition (WISC-IV) is among the most widely used children's intellectual ability assessment today. There are 10 required subtests (5 are supplementary) that yield a Full Scale IQ score and four Composite scores that are; Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed. The Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning Composites are very good indicators of giftedness (apparently Working Memory and Processing Speed are not).... See Dr. Sandhu's answer on The WISC-IV Test of Intelligence.


Terra Nova Score

Q: My daughter has entered 8th grade this September, she has been put into a Reading/Writing Lab based on her Terra Nova test results (score 682) from 7th grade, that this is an academic intervention. Yet, she was an honor roll student 3 out of 4 semesters and her year end average was 93%....should I been concerned? And can someone please explain to me what is Terra Nova score actually means?

A: The Terra Nova test is a standardized achievement test used to provide consistent, accurate, and objective information about students' achievement in various areas of the curriculum. Being a standardized test, standard testing procedures (with exact directions, time limits, and scoring criteria) ensure that testing conditions are the same for all students. ... See Dr. Sandhu's answer on Terra Nova test score


True IQ

Q: I have three children, identical twins 22, and one 16 all boys. They were all diagnosed in school with learning disabilities. The twins verbal IQ's were both 128 but performance IQ was 95. Their disability was in auditory. My youngest verbal IQ is 133 and performance IQ was 91. And he has disability in visual. What is the true IQ? Is it the higher number or somewhere in between?

A: To date, there is no test that can actually predict true IQ. IQ scores are the best possible approximation to predict one's cognitive ability based on what is being tested. In fact it is indeed easier to make an IQ score that is lower than one's true IQ than it is to make a score that is higher..... See Dr. Sandhu's answer on True IQ .


IQ and Standardized Tests

Q: Is there anywhere on the results of the Terra Nova tests whereby I can see what my child's IQ is? Our son has been tested in the past and has an IQ on previous tests of 147. He is in gifted programs etc. When I asked for the IQ on the Terra Nova, I was called and told a number which is not near where he was previously, yet his test results show high levels into the 90 on Terra Nova test. Please advice.

A: To be placed in the gifted program, a child would, on the average, have a composite score of at least 96th percentile on a standardized achievement test, which is usually the Terra Nova that is widely used. See Dr. Sandhu's complete answer on IQ and Standardized Tests


Revealing IQ Scores

Q: Could you tell me why I should or should not reveal my child's IQ score to them? I have someone that would really like to know, but most psychologist advice against this. I just want to know the reasoning against this, since one of the number one gripes of gifted kids is that they don't know what it means to be gifted and that everything about it is almost secretive.

A: Usually, psychologists do not encourage revealing IQ scores to children, unless there is a good reason to, which is not very common apart from perhaps curiosity on the child's part...... See Dr. Sandhu's answer on Revealing IQ scores.


Error in IQ Test Scores

Q: Our daughter took the WPPSI at age 4 years and 6 mos. She is now 9 years 5 months. What is the percentage of error in the test scores? Does an individual IQ score change? Why do school districts not recognize IQ as an appropriate measure of giftedness? Any information would be helpful.

A: Usually, the percentage of error in standardized tests is taken into account in the percentile band. The error of measurement here refers to the amount by which the score that is actually observed differs from a hypothetical true score ... See Dr. Sandhu's complete answer on Error in IQ test scores


High IQ: Dealing with Perfectionism

Q: My son is 8 years old and tested in the 99th percentile on the Slosson Intelligence test. He was a late talker. I believe that he does not want to attempt something unless he knows he will do it well. This is becoming apparent in school... If the task in front of him is easy, he willingly sits down and completes it quickly. If the task is difficult, he procrastinates, won't focus, complains and cries. I don't know what to do to help him and I feel he needs to get past this now as it will become more and more difficult for him in the future.

A: Looks like you have a real tough one here! This is actually quite commonly associated with perfectionism among gifted children, which can actually be a good thing up to a certain extent. However, the downside is totally not wanting to do a task if the child feels that s/he is not able to complete the task as well as expected... See Dr. Sandhu's answer on High IQ with perfectionism.


IQ Tests: What other options are there?

Q: My son scored 9.9 on all of the topics on the Terra Nova except for Language. His overall approximate IQ was listed at 141. Can you recommend another type of test so that we can be sure of these numbers? If these numbers are correct, should we will look into the gifted program in our school system as it has been recommended.

A: There are intelligence tests (Terra Nova is an achievement test) such as the WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) which is an excellent IQ test, but it has a general ceiling level for scoring in the 150 IQ range. A WISC is made up of individual subtests. However, it is often recommended that a Stanford-Binet L-M (another very good IQ test) be conducted ... See Dr. Sandhu's complete answer on IQ Tests: What other options are there?


Different IQ Score

Q: My child has achievement score higher than the IQ score. She is classified mentally disabled due to her IQ score. The achievement for Wechsler were: composite scale math 74, written language 89, oral language 88. The Kaufman Assessment Battery achievement composite was 76 (on the brief form it was 81). Her IQ score was lower: verbal 66, performance 68 and full scale of 64 for Wechsler. Is this a significant discrepancy? I think she may have dyslexia. Is that possible?

A: It would not be fair to assume anything without seeing the full report. Different tests may indicate different scores and these scores should not be compared with one another as they may test different abilities. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children is a standardized test that assesses intelligence and achievement in children ... Continue to read Dr. Sandhu's answer on Different IQ Score here.


Perceptual Reasoning component of the WISC IV

Q: My son scored in the 99.8th percentile on the Perceptual Reasoning component of the WISC IV. What does this mean from a practical standpoint? Are there certain subjects that he will be able to better understand than others? What careers may be suited for someone with this innate ability? Does this mean he is better suited to one learning style over another?

A: The Perceptual Reasoning component of the WISC IV requires visual perception, organization and reasoning with visually presented, nonverbal material to solve the kinds of problems that are not typically taught at school. The PR Index (PRI) accounts of 45% of variance in general intelligence.... See Dr. Sandhu's complete answer on Perceptual Reasoning Component of the WISC IV


Low IQ scores Vs High Average Achievement Scores

Q: What are your thoughts regarding low IQ scores (as determined by the WISC-IV) and solid average achievement scores (as determined by the WJ-III)?

A: It is very hard to determine what may cause high discrepancies in scores without looking at the subset of scores. Most tests vary in their content, appropriateness with different populations, and usefulness as a basis for educational requests. Therefore, it is important that tests (especially individualized) are conducted by a trained and experienced tester who would be able to document the strengths, relative weaknesses and advise on the suitability of a program to cater for the educational needs of the child... Continue to read Dr. Sandhu's answer on Low IQ scores Vs High Average Achievement Scores here.



Disclaimer: The "Expert Advice" area of should be used for general purposes only. Advice given here is not intended to provide a basis for action in partiuclar circumstances without consideration by a competent professional. and Dr. Sandhu expressly disclaim all liability for any loss or damage arising from the advice given on this website.



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